- Sunday, 28 October 2012
- Views: 2732
Special On-line Edition for the disappearance day of
Sri Srimad Bhakti Prajnana Kesava Gosvami Maharaja
sri sri guru gauranga jayatah!
Year-5, Special On-line Edition
Posted: 28 October 2012
nitya-lila pravista om visnupada
Sri Srimad Bhakti Prajnana Kesava Gosvami Maharaja
Inspired by and under the guidance of
nitya-lila pravista om visnupada
Sri Srimad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Gosvami Maharaja
by Sri Srimad Bhakti Prajnana Kesava Gosvami Maharaja
The original form of Bhagavan descended during this age of quarrel and hypocrisy as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to deliver all of the living entities. Srila Rupa Gosvami, who is priya-svarupa, the very embodiment of everything dear to Him, and who is foremost among those who established the deepest wishes of His heart, has revealed the symptoms of uttama-bhakti, the utmost culmination of devotional service to Krsna:
anukulyena krsnanusilanam bhaktir-uttama
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.1.11)
anya-abhilasita – prone to selfish, ulterior desires; sunyam – devoid; jnana – knowledge; karma – fruitive work; adi – and so on; anavrtam – not eclipsed; anukulyena – through genuine kindness to Him; krsna – Krsna; anu – perpetual; silanam – ardent endeavour; bhaktir-uttama – the utmost culmination of bhakti (devotional service to Krsna).
Perpetual, ardent endeavour meant exclusively for Sri Krsna and performed out of genuine kindness* to Him, when neither prone to any selfish, ulterior desires nor eclipsed by impersonal knowledge, fruitive work, or any other occupation, is known as uttama-bhakti.
* A gentle, sympathetic, or benevolent disposition; showing consideration for others. Synonyms include “affection, lovingness, fondness, intimacy, agreeableness, pleasantness, gratefulness, thankfulness, softness and tenderness. (Based on the definition of “kind” found in the Oxford dictionary)
The sadhaka who carefully reflects upon and studies this verse under the guidance and care of the followers of Srila Rupa Gosvami will know the meaning of bhakti with lucid clarity and indeed, he will attain realization of bhakti.
The Perfect Definition
The statement of Srimad-Bhagavatam, “krsnas tu bhagavan svayam – while all other forms of Godhead are expansions, Krsna is personally the original form of Godhead” is accepted as the defining statement in any deliberation on sambandha-tattva, or existential relationships. Similarly, the verse at hand, the definition of uttama-bhakti that we are now considering, must be accepted as the defining statement in relation to abhidheya-tattva, the means to the ultimate end, namely krsna-prema.
It is said, “sa caniyame-niyama-karini – the factual definition of something is the one that exceeds all others in authority and is thus regarded as the most prominent.”
Fruitive workers, speculative philosophers, mystics, those who offer the results of their work to God, sense enjoyers, whimsical religionists, and the members of various cults, all propagate their own conceptions of bhakti. This verse, from which the symptoms of bhaktito Krsna can be derived, has utterly subverted their opinions, understandings and inferences by proving these to be inconsistent, flawed and greatly misled.
Intrinsic Symptoms and Boundary Symptoms
“Perpetual, ardent endeavour meant exclusively for Sri Krsna and performed out of genuine kindness to Him, when neither prone to any selfish, ulterior desires nor eclipsed by impersonal knowledge, fruitive work, or any other occupation, is known as uttama-bhakti.”
The symptoms described in the second half of this verse, anukulyena krsna-anu-silanam, directly comprise bhakti’s own form. Hence, these symptoms are called the svarupa-laksana of bhakti. The symptoms described in the first half of this verse, anya-abhilasita-sunyam jnana-karma-adi-anavrtam, demarcate the boundary of bhakti. Hence, these symptoms are called the tatastha-laksana of bhakti.*
* The literal meaning of the words svarupa, tatastha and laksana are as follows: sva means “own” or “intrinsic”; rupa means “form”; tata means “boundary”; stha means “situated on” and laksana means “symptom” or “symptoms”.
A Technical Analysis of Interpreting the Verb-root sil
There is no verb in this verse, but the verb-root sil within the noun anusilanam is perfectly obvious. The word anusilanam is formed by qualifying the verb-root sil with the prefix anu. In Sanskrit grammar there are ten ways to interpret a verb, technically called ganas*. Within some of these ganas – headed by the gana called cura-gana – the verb-root sil is interpreted as “repeated or permanent exercise or discipline” (abhyasa). By this interpretation, sil is conceived of as having progress or engagement (pravrtti) as its essential characteristics. In contrast, within the other ganas – headed by the gana called bhva-gana– the same verb-root, sil, is interpreted as “profound stillness or concentration of thought, or intent contemplation of a particular object” (samadhi). By this interpretation, sil is conceived of as having withdrawal or disengagement (nivrtti) as its essential characteristics.
* “A series of roots or words following the same rule and called after the first word of the series” – Monier Williams Sanskrit Dictionary
Active Efforts and Emotional States of Being
The expression of bhakti is accomplished both through active efforts (cesta) and emotional states of being (bhava). The verb root sil accounts for both of these features of bhakti.*
* Note from the preceding section that abhyasa can be considered an action, and samadhi can be considered an emotional state of being.
Active Engagements and Active Disengagements
Continuing on, the active feature itself of anusilanam for the sake of Sri Krsna, is expressed through one’s body, one’s mind and one’s words. Each of these methods of expression is always seen in the two forms of engagements (pravrtti-rupa) and disengagements (nivrtti-rupa).
Engaging in the nine prominent limbs of bhakti, which constitute its very form, through one’s body, mind and words is krsna-anusilanam in the form of an active engagement (pravrtti-atmaka-cesta). On the other hand, resolutely abstaining from offending Krsna’s holy name or the process of serving Krsna is krsna-anusilanam in the form of an active disengagement (nivrtti-atmaka-cesta).
Perpetual and Without Obstruction
The prefix anu can be used to mean “following”, “accompanying”, “repeatedly” or “perpetually”. In Sri Harinamamrta-vyakarana Srila Jiva Gosvami comments on the use of the prefix anu in the con-text of krsna-pravacaniya (cf. Panini’s karma-pravacaniya*).
* “A term for certain prepositions of particles not connected with a verb but generally governing a noun (either separated from it or forming a compound with it).” – Monier Williams Sanskrit Dictionary
‘anu’ resu saharthe ca hine tupas-ca kathyat
Sri Harinamamrta-vyakarana (4.107)
The characteristics that are repeated in each of the prefixes pari, prati and parts ofabhi [especially “toward” and “severally”, or “one after another”] are also included in anu. But it is to be mentioned that anu also exclaims “accompaniment” and “inferiority” like the prefixupa.
The prefix anu is used in this verse with the verb-root sil to convey “perpetually and ardently endeavouring”. In other words, the ardent endeavours (silanam) discussed in this definition of uttama-bhakti must be perpetual and without obstruction. Furthermore, such perpetual, ardent endeavours must be exclusively for Sri Krsna. When anu-silanam in both its features, namely active efforts and emotional states of being, is meant exclusively for Sri Krsna, then it is part of bhakti. Hence krsna-anu-silanam.
Pleasing, active engagements exclusively meant for Sri Krsna is indeed bhakti. It stands to reason that perpetual, ardent endeavour (anusilanam) must be immediately pleasing to the person it is meant for. Thus, it would seem we have discovered the definition of bhakti in the term krsnanusilanam itself.*
* The definition presently under discussion is “perpetual, ardent endeavour meant exclusively for Sri Krsna”, along with the implication that “such perpetual, ardent endeavour must immediately gratify the person it is meant for”.
However, this symptom of bhakti is tainted by two flaws (dosa). In some respects it extends to include too much (ativyapti-dosa) and in other respects, it does not extend far enough (avyapti-dosa). Those symptoms that are not tainted by the faults of under-extension (avyapti), over-extension (ativyapti) or inconsistency are the correctly derived symptoms of bhakti.
If bhakti were defined solely as krsnanusilanam (perpetual, ardent endeavour meant exclusively for Sri Krsna), or to please Sri Krsna, then, as we will see, it would serve to establish even spiteful demons like Kamsa’s most fearsome wrestlers, Canura and Mustika, as devotees. Herein, the symptoms of bhakti have extended to include too much. In other words, ativyapti-dosa has arisen.
When Sri Krsna heard the challenging words of Canura and Mustika upon entering Kamsa’s royal wrestling arena, the joy of heroism (vira-rasa) surged within Him. Whenever a warrior receives blows from his opponent, he is thrilled. Thus, when Krsna received repeated blows from Canura and Mustika, who perpetually endeavoured to attack Him, He naturally experienced the happiness that arises from heroism. Should one then deem Canura and Mustika to be bhaktas? Since their endeavours were meant for Sri Krsna’s undoing, and not at all for His enjoyment, no one will ever conclude that they are bhaktas.
Conversely, defining bhakti simply as pleasing Sri Krsna, would imply that someone who causes Krsna any displeasure at all is not a bhakta and that his actions are not expressions of bhakti.
For example, once when Mother Yasoda was breastfeeding baby Krsna, the milk she had been heating began to boil over. At once, she removed Sri Krsna from her lap, much to His displeasure, and ran to save the milk. Krsna was so enraged that, biting His lips, He smashed a nearby clay pot that was full of yoghurt. He was so intensely unhappy at being denied His mother’s breast milk to His full satisfaction that He burst into tears.
When Mother Yasoda denied Sri Krsna full satisfaction, He was not even slightly pleased with her. Hence, in this case, defining bhakti as krsnanusilanam alone prevents the definition from extending to include these actions. In other words, avyapti-dosa has arisen.
Mother Yasoda is the presiding goddess of immaculate prema-bhakti in vatsalya-rasa (parental love of God). Her every endeavour is for the sake of serving Sri Krsna. In this pastime, she had thought to herself, “My breast milk alone will not fully nurture Sri Krsna, but the milk on the stove, which is now boiling over, will protect His life!” Although Mother Yasoda was the queen of Vraja and was always surrounded by unlimited servants and maids, she would personally milk the best cows and heat their excellent milk. Then, with her own hands she would prepare the finest butter for Krsna.
“Even if I displease Krsna for the time being,” she had thought, “I must save this milk for Him.” Thoughts like this would cause her prema-bhakti to swell to exceptional heights and thereafter permeate all of Her actions. Her actions can never be anything but bhakti.
Genuine Kindness to Him
The word anukulyena prevents the faults of under-extension (avyapti-dosa) and over-extension (ativyapti-dosa) from tainting the definition of bhakti. In the instrumental case,* the adjective anukula (kind) becomes anukulyena (by means of kindness). If some-one aspires to perform krsnanusilanam – perpetual, ardent endeavours meant exclusively for Sri Krsna – then he must first become anukula – genuinely kind to Him. It must be his sole ambition to please and satisfy Sri Krsna and he must completely expel even the slightest trace of hostility (pratikulata) from his heart. Even if someone’skrsnanusilanam temporarily seems to be entirely favourable for Sri Krsna, if it is not utterly devoid of any underlying adversity and any craving for personal gratification, then it is notbhakti. Although his endeavours may momentarily please his worshipful Lord, if they harbour any personal, selfish, ulterior motives or any motivation besides pleasing the Lord, he will fail to procure the actual fruit of bhakti, namely superlative love of Godhead (prema). Instead, the result he obtains will simply correspond to his underlying motivations.
* The instrumental case is expressed by the inflection ena in Sanskrit and with the prepositions “by means of” or “with” in English. For example, in “perceived directly by means of one’s own eye” or “perceived directly with one’s own eye”, the noun eye is used in the instrumental case.
“Pleasing Srila Gurudeva Gives Me Life”
Many of the disciples of our Srila Gurudeva, jagad-guru paramaradhyatama Sri Srila Prabhupada, gave their bodies, minds, words and wealth to assist in fulfilling his heart’s deepest ambitions. Although he was immensely pleased by their service, or anusilana, it is seen that some of them, even after serving him in this way for so many years, were willing to abandon him, their own guru (guru-tyaga), and that others have developed guru-bhoga, the propensity to exploit him. That is, instead of striving to imbibe the ideal and character of our Sri Gurupada-padma, who was perpetually rapt in bhajana, they have simply imitated his external activities and audaciously costumed themselves as gurus. Not even the first stage of bhakti has manifested in their hearts.
If we contemplate the cause for this, we find that as they served him, they failed to maintain the attitude, “Srila Gurudeva will be pleased by accepting my service and pleasing him gives me life.” Since they served him with many other motives and not exclusively with the hope of pleasing him, they were cheated out of obtaining the principal fruit of serving a sadhu and have instead attained whatever they secretly desired. If someone’s purpose is genuine then as bhakti appears in his heart all its symptoms, which are mentioned in the scriptures, will manifest in him and all hankerings and aspirations opposed to bhakti will gradually diminish.
Symptoms Identical with Bhakti
In our investigation thus far, we have seen that the use of the noun anusilanam (perpetual, ardent endeavours) is far from meaningless. Surely therefore, we cannot assume that the adjective anukulya can sufficiently define bhakti on its own. As we have seen, on the one hand, perpetual, ardent endeavour meant exclusively for Sri Krsna (krsnanusilanam) does not qualify as bhakti if it is not free from hostility; and, on the other hand, even if one’s krsnanusilanam displeases Sri Krsna, if it is devoid of hostility, it may rightfully be called bhakti. Hence while simply pleasing Sri Krsna may not always be bhakti,krsnanusilanam that is devoid of hostility certainly is bhakti.
Furthermore, without a consideration of the active efforts and emotional states of being involved in anusilanam, the mere absence of hostility will not be bhakti. For example, pots and other inert objects harbour no hostility toward Sri Krsna, but due to their insentience, they cannot make any active effort for Sri Krsna’s sake nor express any emotion for Him. Therefore, the two terms anukulyena and krsnanusilanam together verily express the intrinsic symptoms of bhakti.
It has been stated in the scriptures:
tad-abhinnatve sati tad-bhodakatvam svarupa-laksanam
That which remains identical with an object while causing comprehension of it to arise is called the object’s svarupa-laksana (intrinsic symptom).
The joint term anukulyena krsnanusilanam – the extraordinary nature of perpetual, ardent endeavour meant exclusively for Sri Krsna and endowed with the characteristic of kindness to Him (anukulya) – allows one to comprehend the meaning of krsna-bhakti. At the same time, anukulyena krsnanusilanam is truly identical with krsna-bhakti itself. Hence anukulyena krsnanusilanam is the svarupa-laksana (intrinsic symptom) of krsna-bhakti.
Symptoms Distinct from Bhakti
Now we will consider the two boundary symptoms.
tad-bhinnatve sati tad-bhodakatvam tatastha-laksanam
That which remains distinct from an object while causing comprehension of it to arise is called the object’s tatastha-laksana (boundary symptom).
In the first half of the verse – anyabhilasita-sunyam jnana-karmadyanavrtam – the termsanya-abhilasita, and jnana-karma-adi describe uttama-bhakti through their distinction from it. Hence they are the tatastha-laksana (boundary symptoms) of uttama-bhakti.
Not Prone to Any Selfish, ulterior Motives
The purpose of the phrase anya-abhilasita-sunyam is to reveal that, while constantly engaged in the search for Sri Krsna’s happiness, one must exclusively wish to obtainbhakti without harbouring any selfish, ulterior motives, like the aspiration to attain celestial or bodily pleasures.
It is very significant that the term anyabhilasita has been used instead of anyabhilasa. While the prayers of some devotees may at times appear to be in the form of anyabhilasa, in other words motivated by some desire other than Sri Krsna’s happiness, they are still not prone to foster these other desires (anyabhilasita).
To illustrate this point, consider one example:
Sri Yudhisthira Maharaja yearned to become the emperor of the world in order to serve Sri Krsna. For this end, he supplicated Sri Krsna with his request to perform the Rajasuya-yajna.* Actually, his apparent desire to be emperor was only anyabhilasa, but in fact, it was devoid of anyabhilasita. His actual motivation was simply to have the necessary opulence to serve Sri Krsna in a way befitting the Lord’s position. In other words, his aspiration to have sovereignty over the whole world was not motivated by a desire to achieve personal greatness.
* The Rajasuya-yajna may only be performed by a king, and prospective world emperor, who has already subjugated the entire world, either by force or by consent, and has formalized his conquest by the particular means outlined in sastra.
The word anyabhilasita is comprised of the noun anyabhilasa (selfish, ulterior motive) and the suffix nin, which means “to foster”. Thus, the nature of fostering selfish, ulterior motives is called anyabhilasita.
Moreover, if a suddha-bhakta is faced with some imminent disaster, he may pray to Sri Bhagavan to save him. Although his prayer may appear to be anyabhilasa, it will not hinder his bhakti.
Perpetual endeavour in the form of active efforts and emotional states of being, meant exclusively for Sri Krsna, performed out of genuine kindness to Him, and uneclipsed by knowledge (jnana) or fruitive work (karma) is, in fact, uttama-bhakti.
In this context, jnana refers to the search for the impersonal brahma; karma refers to daily rituals (nitya-karma), and rituals meant for specific occasions (naimittika-karma), as outlined in the smrti-sastras; and adi (literally “and so on”) refers to futile forms of renunciation (phalgu-vairagya), mystic yoga (astanga-yoga), abhyasa-yoga as delineated in sankhya-sastra (the scriptures dealing with empiric enumeration of universal elements); and so forth.
All of the above disciplines are to be rejected by the sadhaka because they eclipse his devotion and because their purpose is not even remotely meant to make the Lord happy. Through these disciplines, the sadhaka can attain some supernatural powers, all of which are diametrically opposed to the longing search for Sri Krsna’s happiness. Since these forms of jnana and karma thoroughly eclipse devotion, they have been forsaken.
The word anavrtam, which means “not eclipsed”, has been used in connection withjnana and karma instead of sunya, which means “devoid of”. The significance of this is that certain forms of both jnana and karma are integral parts of bhakti. Supremely pure jnana is present within bhakti as the search for one’s worshipful deity and as knowledge of the reality of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, bhagavat-tattva-jnana. And what appears to be karma (literally action), is present within bhakti as serving the Supreme Lord by cleaning His temple, cooking for Him and so on. Factually these activities are included among the nine limbs of bhakti; they are not mundane karma. Had the phrase jnana-karma-adi-sunya been used, which means devoid of jnana, karma and so on, the aforementioned visuddha-bhakti-tattva-jnana (knowledge of the reality of supremely purebhakti), as well as service to Bhagavan, would have also been forsaken even though these forms of jnana and karma do not eclipse bhakti. In fact, they solely and indispensably nurture it.
The Highest Perfection of Bhakti
In our evaluation of the term krsnanusilanam, we must surely include anusilanam for Sri Krsna in any of His forms, like Rama and Nrsimha. Still, in light of this understanding, it would be most excellent if Srila Rupa Gosvami, the original and most revered guru-pada-padma of the Gaudiya Vaisnavas, has left some intimation of the utmost culmination of uttama-bhakti within this perfectly derived definition; that culmination which is observed in the most exalted stages of the Gaudiya Vaisnavas’ bhajana.
Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami was a most distinguished associate of Srila Rupa Gosvami. Due to their great intimacy, he understood what was in Srila Rupa Gosvami’s heart and has therefore written “anukulye sarvendriye krsnanusilana” within his translation of this verse. He has used the words sarva-indriya, “with all senses”, in order to indicate the highest stage of bhakti. That is to say, it is impossible for anyone but the vraja-gopis who are in madhura-rasa, the mode of amorous love of Godhead, to perform krsnanusilanam with all of their senses. It is even impossible for those within vatsalya-rasa, the mode of parental love of Godhead, to perform krsnanusilanam, in its highest perfection, with all of their senses.
The Fruit of Bhakti
Hearing, chanting, remembering and so on comprise the very form of uttama-bhakti. If a sadhaka performs his sadhana-bhakti with the sole intention of making Sri Bhagavan happy, he will attain krsna-prema, the fruit of his sadhana, very quickly and with ease. Thereafter, he will gradually advance through each successive stage of prema. Therefore, in Srimad-Bhagavatam (6.3.22) it is said:
bhakti-yogo bhagavati tan-nama-grahanadibhih
Devotional service, beginning with the chanting of the holy name of the Lord, is the ultimate religious principle for the living entity in human society.*
* Translation by Srila A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, © Bhaktivedanta Book Trust.
Here, although it suffices to simply say bhakti-yoga, the word bhagavati is included in order to convey that the activities of bhakti, such as chanting and remembering, are only known as bhakti-yoga when they are performed exclusively for Sri Bhagavan’s pleasure. Only this bhakti-yoga can bestow prema. If the activities of bhakti such as chanting and remembering are performed with any purpose other than pleasing Sri Bhagavan, they cannot be called bhakti-yoga and they will never bear the fruit of krsna-prema.
Translated from Sri Gaudiya Patrika, Year 1, Issue 3, 1949
by the Rays of The Harmonist team
CC-BY-SA Rays of The Harmonist – “Sri Guru-parampara”, No.18 (Karttika 2008)